Friday, June 22, 2018

Data Age and Digital Security

By: Zabihullah Noori 
At this age of technology where activists use various forms of digital communication whether it is texting on a mobile phone, sending an email, twitting breaking news or organizing an online campaign on Facebook, the privacy and the protection of data is at the center of all these platforms.
Afghanistan Journalists Center as an associated member of the CIVICUS participated in a digital security training that discussed the techniques and maneuvers of detecting data breaches and coming under cyber attack through phishing, malware, and spyware. The training also provided useful tips and list of procedures to follow on how to limit these threats and try to prevent them in the first place.
First and foremost, journalists, civil society activists, and human rights defenders should download software from well-known sources. Regularly update their computers, tablets and mobile phones. Un-updated softwares are more vulnerable to cyber attacks. They should also install an anti-virus on their Mac and PC desktop, laptop, tablets and mobile phones and run a health check at least once a week.
Once these steps are done then the journalists, civil society activists, and human rights defenders can follow these measures that will assist them to safeguard their data and devices such as computers, tablets, and mobile phones and to protect their identity from hackers.
A password is at the heart of protection. The stronger the password, the more you are protected. The creation of a strong and unpredictable password backed up by a Two Factor Authenticator (2FA) is of utmost importance. Passwords are the primary key to hackers who would be interested in hacking one’s account. The weaker or the most predictable the password the more it makes the hackers’ job easy to break in into the account. A password of 15-20 character-long containing numbers, characters and Upper and lower case letters would be really hard for hackers to break in. The 2FA will put another protection layer into the account. Even if a hacker manages to figure out the password in an activist’s computer, it will be really difficult to break in the 2FA that has been activated in another device such as mobile phone.
Variation of passwords for different accounts is another recommendation that journalists and activists must consider.  If the same password were used for different accounts, once a hacker manages to break into one of the accounts, then breaking into all accounts wouldn’t be a hard job.
Since memorizing so many passwords is not an easy task, using the password manager can help. The password manager is a great help in two ways. First for creating a strong randomized password, and second for storing all the randomized passwords for different accounts into a password protected folder. Instead of memorizing 10 different randomized passwords, the activist will only need to memorize the password for the Password Manager application.
Encrypting the computer hard drive, USB and external hard drive is another measure in keeping the data protected and secure from the hackers. It is worth noting that in some countries the governments can force the service providers to share the contents of the activists with them. However, if the data is encrypted, it will make it really hard, if not impossible to decrypt the data, given that is protected by a strong, unpredictable and randomized password and the 2FA.
Some countries ban activists from their activities by imposing a restriction on their Internet. To break this and to be able to access the Internet and do not disclose your physical location to such authorities, it is better to use a Virtual Private Network (VPN).
If you ever felt hacked or got suspicious of coming under a malware attack, you can contact Afghanistan Journalists Center that will connect you to the right sources at Access Now whose staff will analyze the threats and advise you on how to deal with it.
And finally, since journalists and activists try to reach as many people as possible they reach out to various sites, particularly social networking sites that are vulnerable to hackers. The activists and journalists must take extra care in using the sites that are safe for their communication.
Below are the list of some of the website and the purpose they could be used for.
https://www.google.com/landing/2step/ (Google 2 Factor Authentication to back up your password)
https://www.cnet.com/news/the-best-password-managers-directory/(Password manager for creating a randomized password and for storing all your passwords in one place)
https://prism-break.org/en/(websites for downloading open source websites)
https://www.accessnow.org/blog(warning about serious threats)
https://www.torproject.org/(keep your search anonymous and encrypt your search, but only use it for delicate and sensitive matters)
https://haveibeenpwned.com/(check if your email has been hacked)
https://share.riseup.net/(files sharing= equivalent of we transfer, but a lot safer)
https://www.sync.com/(for an end to end encryption-*paid)
https://signal.org/download/ (-messaging, audio, and video calls)
https://wire.com/en/(video calls-End to End encrypted)
https://securityinabox.org/en/(offer step-by-step instructions to help you install, configure and use some essential digital security software and services)

This article was first published on Afghanistan Journalists Center 

Wednesday, February 28, 2018

The West On The Brink Of Failure In Afghanistan

Int'l community needs to engage in stabilizing the country politically by listening to all Afghans, making sure equal distribution of power among all ethnic groups.

The U.S. and NATO mission in Afghanistan was to eliminate al-Qaeda terrorist network, dismantle the hardline Taliban, and ensure some important Western values such as democracy, women's rights and women's education in the country. 
Sixteen years on, the country still is in turmoil. According to U.S. intelligence reports about 20 terrorist groups including al-Qaeda, Taliban and Daesh are active in Afghanistan. 
The Afghan forces are losing ground to insurgents. Taliban fighters have reached the doorsteps of Kabul. The Afghan government is dysfunctional with all its three branches of power acting illegally and against the Afghan Constitution. 
The international community’s financial and military efforts in Afghanistan will be in vain if it does not engage fully and impartially in resolving the current political dispute among different parties. The dissatisfaction of major players within the government can lead to a civil war and the collapse of the political system, which will only pave the way for the Taliban and Daesh to gain more territory.
The current system of government—a coalition government—was not foreseen in the constitution, and is therefore in contrast with it. The base of this coalition government, as prescribed by the U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, is a political agreement between the two front-runners in the 2014 presidential election runoff - both of whom publicly accused each other of orchestrating massive fraud in the elections. The truth is that former Secretary Kerry destroyed the very democratic system of the government in which the U.S. and other nations invested men and money. 
Three years down the road from the establishment of the National Unity Government (NUG), the government has failed to fulfill any of the three major articles of the agreement: reforming the electoral system and the electoral commission, distributing the long-awaited electronic or digital national ID cards and convening a grand assembly to amend the Constitution to legalize the position of the Chief Executive Officer. 
Even putting these failures to one side, the government is three years into its five-year term yet still needs to appoint many of its cabinet ministers. Eleven ministries, nearly 45 percent of Afghan cabinet, are run by acting ministers, seven of whom were given no-confidence votes by the MPs last November for their failure in spending the development budgets in their ministries. 
By law, those ministers should have been out of office within a couple of weeks, but the president ordered them all to continue in their positions to date. An order that is in complete contrast with the Afghan Constitution. The acting ministers' limited authority has added to the already corrupt system and has slowed down the public services even more.

The president appeared in a press conference on 11 July 2017 and told reporters that he plans to introduce the new candidate ministers to the Afghan Parliament in the next six months.

The parliament, which in a real democratic government is a check on the executive branch, also lacks the legitimacy to stand against the president, because their paychecks are dependent on the president issued decree.

The parliamentary election is nearly three years overdue. The MPs sitting in House of Representatives are illegal and against the law, while the Senate is one-third short of its members because the district council election never took place in the past 16 years.

Putting the corruption aside, the judiciary system is incomplete with three judges in the Supreme Court yet to be appointed by the president.

A major turn back to democracy in the formation of National Unity Government (NUG) was the demolition of true political opposition. Since both front-runners running the government, there's no real opposition to hold them accountable to the people.

The only opposition the government has is the civil society with its very limited resources. When the civil society raises the people's voices through organizing demonstrations and public gatherings, the government suppress them in a completely totalitarian method.

Instead of taking measures to improve security, the government continued to cover up the shortcomings of the security officials, partly for ethnic and partisan biases. The government's culture of impunity to officials made the security officials even more irresponsible and indifferent to the situation. While this foul approach encouraged the Taliban and ISIS to become even more proactive.

The oppositions became so courageous that they went inside a fortified military corps in relatively safe and secure province of Balkh in northern Afghanistan. Ten Taliban insurgents wearing the Afghan security forces uniform and using the Afghan defense ministry vehicle managed to enter the 209 Shaheen Military Corps and carry out an unprecedented attack where they killed more than 150 military personnel and wounded about 250 more.

The outburst of public frustration forced the government to take action. But to public surprise, the government disappointed them even more. After severe criticism of the public in mainstream and social media, the Afghan Defense Minister and his Joints Chief of Staff appeared in a press conference and announced their resignations. But just two days after the announcement, the president appointed both men as Afghan ambassadors to Jordan and Kazakhstan.

Following a deadly blast in the heart of Kabul in May that according to Afghan media killed more than 230 and injured more than 800 others the people came to streets and demanded the resignation of security ministers. To disperse the protesters, the Afghan police opened fire on the protesters and killed six people. No government ministers were fired or brought to justice for failure in the job or incompetence.

The Afghan president, an economist with delusion, trusts a finger counted number of people in the government who are all Pashtoon—the same ethnic background as president Ghani. The president’s dictatorship approach and his way of bypassing all players except people in his close circle have created lots of political opponents, including the first vice-president.

Recently the top government players such as first Vice President General Abdul Rashi Dostum, the Afghan Foreign Minister Salahuddin Rabbani, the deputy to Afghan CEO Haji Mohammad Mohaqiq and the Provincial Governor of Balkh Atta Mohammad Noor created a coalition in Turkey calling for reform in the government and inclusion of political players from other ethnic backgrounds in decision making processes. Upon return to the country governor Noor spoke among his supporters. Warning the Afghan government and the international community, governor Noor said that if the government doesn’t bring reform and if the international community continues to side with one group while ignoring all parties involved, he will seek and accept “any support, from anyone”.

The first vice-president who is in exile in Turkey, because of the accusation of abuse of authority and sexual harassment, wanted to come back to country, but his plane was not granted permission to land in the Afghan territory. His plane was forced to return back to Turkey. Afghans across the country worry that the vice-president will definitely show serious reaction.

The president still runs the office his way and the West continues to back him politically and financially. President Ghani measures success in obtaining funds from international community. Enjoying the unconditional backing international community, the U.S. specifically, having no powerful political opposition, and having no legal parliament to impeach him, president Ghani has his luckiest days in office.

However, the recent statements by the UN, U.S. and NATO high-ranking officials indicate that the West has come to a realization that it will fail in Afghanistan and will fail badly unless it changes course and takes some serious actions to resolve the matters soon.

In a briefing to the United Nations Security Council on 21 June 2017, the Secretary-General’s Special Representative for Afghanistan, Tadamichi Yamamoto said, “Political fault-lines that emerged are increasingly along an ethnic basis, which is particularly worrying at a time when the Islamic State (Daesh) is attempting to provoke sectarian strife in the country through attacks against Shia Muslims.”

Expressing concerns over deteriorating political situation Mr. Yamamoto said,
“I remain concerned, however, that without changes in governance practices we are likely to face future crises that might be more difficult to contain.”

Speaking to reporters ahead of defense ministerial meeting, NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg admitted lack of success in Afghanistan. Emphasizing on the complexity of war in Afghanistan he said, “We don’t think this operation in Afghanistan is going to be easy and we don’t think it's going to be peaceful … this year or next year or in the near future.” In contrast to the Afghan government’s approach for peace talks with the Taliban, he said, “As long as the Taliban believe they can win the war they will not negotiate. We need to break the stalemate and to enable the Afghans to make advances.”

NATO pledged more troops to Afghanistan and 15 nations have shown green light. It is said that NATO will deploy about 3000 more troops to Afghanistan. Currently, NATO has 5000 men on the ground to train and support the Afghan troops under the organization’s Resolute Mission.

Unlike Obama administration officials who often boasted about winning in Afghanistan, the new US administration officials are careful with their words and analysis of the situation in Afghanistan. Learning from the imperfect and nearsighted policies of Obama administration, the Trump administration officials admit their defeat in Afghanistan, while promising a workable and thorough strategy for the Afghan war.

Testifying to the Senate Armed Services Committee, the US Defense Secretary James Mattis said, “We’re not winning in Afghanistan right now and we will correct this as soon as possible.”

The U.S. is currently considering sending around 3,900 troops to Afghanistan, which will bring the total number of American troops in the country to 12,400.
All in all, if approved the total number of U.S. and NATO troops in Afghanistan could rise to 20,400.  It is worth noting that at the height of war in Afghanistan the U.S. had more than 100,000 troops there.

While the U.S. is focused on a military win in Afghanistan, the truth is that there won’t be any long lasting peace or security in country unless the international community gets involved thoroughly in the Afghan situation. Providing funding to corrupt officials with no or little oversight will do no good to Afghan citizens.

To win in Afghanistan, in addition to training the Afghan security forces, the international community must put pressure on Pakistan to close down the terrorist training camps inside Pakistan and to act honestly in targeting terrorists inside its territory. But perhaps most importantly, the international community needs to engage in stabilizing the country politically by listening to all Afghans, making sure that equal distribution of power takes place among all ethnic groups and by holding the government accountable to its citizens. 
This article was initially published at Tolonews.com https://www.tolonews.com/opinion/west-brink-failure-afghanistan

Wednesday, January 18, 2017

She defied the Taliban: in exile Rahela Sidiqi fights for Afghanistan

An Afghan in exile, Rahela Sidiqi who stood against the brutality of the Taliban in the 90s to educate women and girls in Afghanistan now provides scholarships for disadvantaged girls in her home country. In this video, she talks about some horrible experiences she had with the Taliban.



Saturday, August 20, 2016

Afghan Cultural Festival, London

Hundreds of Afghans from across the United Kingdom got together in London for an afternoon of fun, food, live music and enjoyment in celebration of Afghan Cultural Festival.

The Afghan Cultural Festival aimed to illustrate various aspects of the Afghan culture. The Festival had something for every participant whether adults or children.
Afghans enjoying their time at cultural festival

Hamidullah Hamid came from Manchester to enjoy the concert and meet with his friends in London. He said, “ I come to concert to enjoy the live music and meet with friends and family here in London. It’s a lot of fun to meet all these Afghans in one place.”

Maliha Wahab, 52, mother of six came to watch the live performance of Ms. Naghma—a famous female Afghan Pashto singer.
Mrs. Wahab said, “I love Naghma and I always wanted to see her live performance. Today’s festival made my dream come true.”

Famous musicians and nine Afghan singers were invited from Canada, USA and Europe to perform live music for an audience of about 1000 people at Gunnersbury Park.

Ghulam Nabi, 17, an asylum seeker from southern Afghanistan has only been in the United Kingdom for a week. Master Nabi said that he feels lucky that his host family had another Afghan boy who knew about the concert. Nabi said that he has not been to any concert in his village, because so far as he remembers there has always been fighting in his village in Helmand province. He said, “It is unbelievable to see so many Afghan together and hear the songs in your own language. I cannot find words to express my joy and happiness.”

In addition to music the organizers put a lot of efforts to represent the Afghan culture in as many ways as possible. Afghan models on the catwalk showed different Afghan traditional dresses. Food stalls offered traditional Afghan meals like Qabili Palau (steamed rice cooked with lamb, raisin and carrot), Mantoo (Ravioli), Bolani (Pan fried pastry filled with potato) and Shor Nakhod (boiled chickpea) for sale.  One stall sold Afghan books in Dari and Pashto languages at discounted prices; the other stall had contemporary and traditional Kochi dresses for sale; another stall sold Afghan-style kite and string. On one corner of the park fun fair has been organized to entertain the children.

The veteran Afghan journalist and TV presenter Ahmad Ghous Zalmai came from Canada to host the event.  Emphasizing on the importance of Afghan Cultural Festival Mr. Zalmai said that such events can teach a great deal of cultural values to Afghan children who are born abroad. 

He said, “When the children come in these festivals, they see the interaction of Afghans with each other, they see the Afghan singers, they hear different languages of Afghanistan, and they make friends and network with other Afghans.”

Suleiman Halim an employee of Navab&Co Accountants Company—one of the leading sponsors of 5th Afghan Cultural Festival said, “Afghanistan is a very diverse country with several local languages and accents. In this festival, we tried to bring singers of different languages, so everyone can feel and enjoy their own music.”

Afghan Cultural Festival has been growing over the years. Initially, Paiwand Afghan Association initiated the idea of celebrating Afghan Cultural Festival, but over the years various Afghan companies and businesses have come forward to sponsor and support this event. The 5th Afghan Cultural Festival was organized and managed by Navab&Co with support from Kabul City restaurant, Elonat magazine, HH Studio and Mangal exchange and travel.  

Thursday, April 10, 2014

Afghan elections: Ballot Shortage, Calm before Storm

By: Zabihullah Noori

More than 7 million Afghans, one third of whom women, cast their votes on April 5th presidential and provincial councils elections.
Afghans flocked to the polling station and cast their votes, despite a series of serious disruption threats from Taliban and terrorists. However, the shortage of ballot papers in several provinces disappointed many voters who went to the polling stations just to find out that they could not cast their votes.

The turnout of voters in a relatively cold and rainy day not only was a clear indication of their frustration with current corrupt government and president Karzai’s pro-Taliban policies, but also a show of enthusiasm for a change and their support for democratic process in transfer of power from one elected president to the next. This was a historic day for Afghanistan. It was the first time in the country’s history that the transition of power could take place without any coup or bloodshed.

Just days before the election the Taliban attacked several key locations including site offices and headquarter of the Independent Electoral Commission in the country’s capital Kabul, killing people and causing chaos. The Taliban have vowed to disrupt the elections in any way they could. But determination of Afghans showed that they value democracy at the cost of their lives.

Alongside the general public, April 5th 2014 proved a historic day for the Afghan National Security Forces as for the first time the ANSF acted in collaboration with each other and ensured the security of voters and polling stations without the support of international troops. 
Apart from security threats, fraud and interference of government in the Independent Electoral Commission’s affairs was another big worry that most Afghans, but specifically the runners in the race had. During the electoral campaign period different government opposition political parties and candidates accused the incumbent president and government officials for abusing power and supporting specific candidates. But president Karzai has always dismissed such accusations and emphasized on impartiality of the government and his ministers.

As seen, the transparency of this year’s election was much better than the past two elections, in part, due to huge participation of the public. But the shortage of ballots in specific parts of the country showed the incapability of the IEC in its preparation for this important day.

The IEC claims that it had dispatched 600 ballot papers for each polling center, estimating a one-minute time scale for each voter in a ten-hour day mission. But the independent observers, the journalists and the voters in these centers reported that some polling centers run out of ballot papers in the early hours of the day. According to reports polling centers in Balkh, Herat, Samangan, Badakhshan, Jawzjan and Kabul provinces run out of ballot papers as early in the day as 11am.

When asked for explanation, the IEC officials denied the claims, but insisted in prosecuting the perpetrators, if their investigation finds any staff guilty of fraud.   

The ballot shortage, not only deprived people from practicing their rights and casting their votes, but also brought the thoroughness of elections along with the independence of Electoral Commission under question.

Perhaps it might not come as surprise that the ballot shortage was mostly reported in the North and West of the country, where the frontrunners Dr. Abdullah Abdullah and Dr Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai, the main competitors to the Dr. Zalmai Rassoul—a candidate said to be backed by the president—had large number of voters.

With President Karzai cherry picking and appointing the entire commission’s members and with reports surfacing about the ballot shortages in specific parts of the country, most people accuse the Commission for organizing a systematic fraud.

As expressed by candidates spokespersons as well as voters through social media sites, they believe that the ballot shortage in North and West was planned by the Commission to stop the frontrunners from winning in the first round and to provide president’s favorite candidate with a chance to close the gap and make it among the top two in the race.


While official results are expected in two to three weeks, the candidates’ representatives have already begun to question the issue of ballot shortage in media talk shows. The upcoming days are crucial as the observers and media will closely monitor the process and will inform the public about the Electoral Complaint Commissions’ findings. Reports of any intentional wrongdoing by the IEC staff in favor of any candidate not only can undermine the results, but can also jeopardize the whole process. The ballot shortage issue seems to be the calm before storm.


This article was first published in the Eurasiareview.com on April 9, 2014
Disclaimer:  The photo published with the article in Eurasiareview.com was chosen by the site administrator.

Wednesday, April 09, 2014

انتخابات افغانستان و مشکل کمبود برگه های رای

ذبیح الله نوری

انتخابات شانزده هم حمل سال 1393 عليرغم چالش های امنيتی با حضور گستردهء مردم افغانستان سپری شد. باآنکه طالبان و گروه های تروريستی شان تهديد های زيادی برای تخريب انتخابات و به چالش کشيدن اين روند داده بودند، اما مردم افغانستان با حضور پررنگ و بی سابقهء شان درين پروسه ملی سيلی محکمی بر روی دشمنان وطن و مردم کوبيدند.
قبل ازانتخابات علاوه بر تشويش از امنيت انتخابات، تشويش ديگری که بيشتر مردم وبه ويژه نامزدان انتخابات را دامن گير بود، همانا مسئلهء تقلب درانتخابات بود. بيشتر کارشناسان و احزاب سياسی مخالف حکومت رئيس جمهور را به مداخله درامور انتخابات و مهندسی کردن نتايج آن متهم ميکردند. باآنکه رئيس جمهور کرزی همواره بر انتقال مسالمت آميز قدرت سياسی و عدم مداخله درامور انتخابات تاکيد داشته است، اما ازاينکه انتخاب نهايی اعضای کميسيون های دوگانهء مستقل انتخابات و شکايت های انتخاباتی توسط شخص رئيس جمهور، البته پس از معرفی کميتهء گزينش، صورت گرفته بود، استقلاليت کميسيون درمواردی تحت پرسش ميرفت.

رسانه های داخلی و خارجی همه و همه اشتراک وسيع مردم درين پروسه را ستوده ونقش مردم را درتعيين زعيم آينده کشورشان مهم تعريف کرده اند. ظاهراً درپايان اين روزتاريخی نامزدان رياست جمهوری نيز از روند انتخابات ابراز خوشنودی کرده و حتی برخی از نامزدان به رئيس جمهور کرزی برای مديريت اش از اين روند تبريکی نيز اظهار داشته اند.


و اما چالشی که درروزهای آينده پيش بينی ميشود، همانا پذيرش نتيجهء نهايی انتخابات است. با آنکه کميسيون مستقل انتخابات تاکيد بيش از حد برای آماده گی کامل برگزاری اين روند داشت، ولی طوريکه ديده شد کميسيون متذکره درين خصوص محاسبهء دقيق ننموده و ضعف مديريتی اين نهاد برای تهيه برگه های کافی رای دهی باعث آن شد که تعدادی زيادی از مردمان کشور درمناطق مختلف از حق رای شان محروم شوند.


درحال حاضر توجه رسانه ها و کارشناسان بيشتر روی سهمگيری مردم و روحيه آنها بخاطر اشتراک درين پروسه متمرکز است و به مسئلهء کمبود برگه های رای دهی کمتر پرداخته شده است، اما همينکه نتايج نهايی اعلام شود، بيشتر نامزدان اين موضوع را باخيلی جديت مطرح خواهند کرد.
پيگيری اين مسئله علاوه برضعف مديريتی کميسيون مستقل انتخابات، استقلاليت اين نهاد، سرتاسری بودن انتخابات و حتی نتايج نهايی را ميتواند به چالش بکشاند.

هرگاه کميسيون آماری دقيقی از تعداد رای دهنده گان درمحلات و مراکز رای دهی نداشت که به اساس آن برگه ها را ميفرستاد، پس برای جلوگيری از احتمال کمبود برگه های رای دهی بائيست برگه های بيشتر از حد تخمين را به مراکز مختلف ميفرستاد. و هرگاه کمژسيون ازقبل ميدانست که دچار کمبود برگه های رای دهی خواهد شد،  ميبائيست اين معضل را با مردم از طريق رسانه ها شريک ميساخت. کميسيون مستقل انتخابات استدلال ميکند که درهرمحل رای دهی 600 برگه رای دهی فرستاده است. يک محاسبهء خيلی ابتدايی ميتواند ثابت کند که اين ادعای کميسيون نادرست است. چون هرگاه فرض کنيم دادن رای برای هررای دهنده حداقل يک دقيقه وقت بگيرد،(البته بادرنظرگيری اين واقعيت که تمامی کارها توسط اشخاص با قلم و کاغذ به پيش برده ميشود، و هيچ کامپيوتر يا دستگاه الکترونيکی درکارنيست)  پس دريک ساعت، تعداد 60 نفر رای خواهند داد. که اين رقم درمدت 10 ساعت مساوی به همان محاسبهء کميسيون که 600 برگه برای 600 نفررای دهنده درمدت 10 ساعت است، ميشود. و اما طوريکه گزارش شده است، دربرخی محلات رای دهی، برگه های رای حتی در حدود ساعت های 11 بجه قبل ازظهرتمام شده و مردم نتوانستند از حق رای شان استفاده کنند.  حالانکه ميشود با يک ديد کاملاً خوشبينانه پذيرفت که واقعاً اين مشکل آنی بوده و هيچ غرضی درين ميان درکار نبوده است، مسئلهء که تعدادی قابل ملاحظهء شهروندان کشور از حق رای شان محروم شدند، آيا اصل سرتاسری بودن انتخابات را تحت پرسش نميبرد؟


و نکتهء آخر که حتی ميتواند استقلاليت کميسيون و نتايج انتخابات را به چالش بکشاند، اينست که اگر اين مسئله تصادفی بوده است پس چطور ميشود که برگه های رای دهی بيشتر در ولايت های شمال و غرب کشورو درجاهای کمبود شود که نامزدان پيشتازو رقبای نامزد متهم به داشتن حمايت حکومت شانس رای آوردن را داشتند. هرگاه نامزدی که توانسته باشد نزديک به 50  درصد آرا را از آن خود کرده باشد، ادعا کرده ميتواند که درصورت عدم کمبود برگه های رای درمحلات رای دهی ميتوانست برندهء انتخابات دردور نخست انتخابات باشد. و اگر نتايج نهايی چنان شود که بيشتر ازيک نامزد نزديک به 50 درصد آرا را کسب کرده باشد، پس اين موضوع چالش های جدی رادرپذيرش نتايج نهايی ببار خواهد آورد. جديت در پيگيری اين مسئله ميتواند کميسيون را به سازماندهی کردن تقلب درانتخابات متهم سازد، و طوريکه درشبکه های اجتماعی ديده ميشود، تعداد زيادی ازشهروندان اين کار کميسيون مستقل انتخابات را به "انفجارو انتحار درمراکزرای دهی" نسبت داده اند. باپيگيری اين موضوع همچنان اتهام های مداخلهء حکومت درکميسيون مستقل انتخابات دوباره تازه شده، استقلاليت کميسيون را يکبارديگر تحت پرسش ميبرد. کمبود برگه های رای که کميسيون آنرا کوچک نمايی کرده و مشکل جزئی تکنيکی مينامند، درآيندهء نه چندان دور به خاموشی قبل از طوفان تبديل خواهد شد.


این مطلب نخست درسایت آرمان ملی با سرخط
 (انتخابات، اشتراک مردم و چالش پيش روی کميسيون مستقل انتخابات) به نشر رسیده است.

Wednesday, February 20, 2013

A visit to West-Thames College London

A visit to West-Thames College London
 In this official visit, I talked to media department teachers and students about media situation in post conflict countries, particularly about media in Afghanistan following the collapse of Taliban regime.